An epitaxy is deposition of a crystalline overlayer on a crystalline substrate. In the late 1960s, J.R. Arthur and Alfred Y. Cho, working at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, developed molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) as a method for thin-film deposition of single crystals.
The basic difference between mechanical cooling and cryogenic cooling is that mechanical cooling systems use a closed-loop system that recovers and reuses the coolant. Traditional cryogenic cooling systems use an open system that expels the spent vapor into the atmosphere.
After upgrades at its food technology center in Cleveland, Linde is able to perform higher-volume and longer test runs to validate performance of cryogenic processes for crusting, cooling or fully freezing foods.
Gilsons, a frozen bakery supplier based in Kettering, Northamptonshire, had two production goals: boost processing capacity on its two bread production lines, and upgrade from a manual blast-freezing process to a fully automated freezing system.
Many food manufacturing processes require heat removal. Whether it is livestock that arrives at the factory already hot, or prepared meals that undergo heating as a step in the process, some form of heat nearly always must be removed prior to shipment.