Selecting ammonia as your refrigerant is no gamble, and you can find out why and how to use it if you attend IIAR's annual meeting.

The IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Conference and Exhibition will be held at the Hilton Resort and Casino in Reno on March 19-22. Manufacturers, contractors, trainers and other product and service providers exhibit at this annual event, and a full course of technical programs, panels and sessions are planned. The exhibit hall will play host to breakfasts, breaks, a cocktail reception and Tuesday's lunch to provide attendees ample time to meet with manufacturers and view new refrigeration equipment, components and supplies.

The conference program will focus on practical system-operating issues addressed in technical papers and panel discussions presented by industry experts. In addition, a special one-day seminar will be held on Wednesday, March 22, covering the new IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Management (ARM) Program. This program is a guideline to assist smaller ammonia refrigeration facilities with meeting federal and state regulatory requirements. Registration for the one-day session is included in the full conference registration, and separate one-day registration for the session is also available.

The focus of the 2006 technical program is “Advancing the State of the Art.” Planned sessions include:

Implementing IIAR's Ammonia Refrigeration Management Program: An End User's Perspective.

To comply with the requirements of the California Accidental Release Prevention (CalARP) program, Ventura Foods implemented an ARM program per IIAR's publication, demonstrating that the program could be practically implemented at a facility with limited resources. This paper will describe the facility's experiences as they implemented the ARM program and had this program inspected by the local administering agency for approval.

Design for Industrial Ammonia/CO2 Cascade Installations.

Restrictions in using CFC, HCFC and even HFC refrigerants are tightening in most countries. For most industrial refrigeration installations, the choice will be between systems using ammonia alone and system using cascaded ammonia/CO2. This paper describes various system design solutions for cascade systems, including selection and sizing of components, as well as safety precautions for operating and servicing these systems.

Non-Chemical Water Treatment for Evaporative Condensers.

Maintaining good water quality is a great challenge while trying to achieve optimum system efficiency and long life of evaporative condensers. Their typically high evaporation rate and small system water volume make chemical water treatment difficult. Using non-chemical devices (NCDs) for water treatment has several potential benefits, including reduced water use and elimination of the regulatory headaches, safety risks, and potential equipment damage associated with handling chemicals.

Ammonia Refrigeration Management: Fine Tuning the People Machine.

Problems such as rising energy costs, inexperienced refrigeration-system operators, changing employee motivations and increased focus on refrigeration system accidents can be real headaches for an owner. To solve these safety and operational problems, refrigeration operators must take ownership of their systems, but motivating them to do so can be an art. This paper provides system owners with tools to motivate operators and help solve these personnel-related problems.

The Real Costs of Product Freezing Using Various Methods.

Many methods such as salting, canning, drying, irradiation, fermentation and freezing may be used to preserve food products. Freezing is attractive because it preserves many desirable attributes such as nutrition, taste, texture and shelf life. However, it requires costly infrastructure and incurs considerable financial overhead. The paper will compare different freezing methods in terms of product damage and quality, weight loss, versatility, reliability, continuity and associated building and refrigerant costs. The paper will also provide owners with a tool to examine the merits of equipment offered in terms of overall owning and operating costs.

Dry Expansion Feed in Dual Stage Ammonia Plants: Operating Experiences in a Large Refrigerated Distribution Center.

The performance and reliability of ammonia liquid overfeed systems are well known and documented. Documented operating experiences with large-scale, low-temperature, extended-surface, galvanized-steel air coolers designed for dry expansion feed are less frequent. The paper describes one such experience in a refrigerated distribution center in Queensland, Australia, and details the methodology and computerized techniques employed in the design, circuiting and performance prediction for the air coolers.

The Joy of Ammonia Pump-Out Systems.

This paper explores the use of ammonia pump-out systems and provides a case study of one end user's experience. Typically, transfer and pump-out of ammonia prior to plant modifications entails a loss of production and significant costs from downtime. This plant, however, has a plant-wide pump-out system that enables quick pump-outs prior to system modifications. Plant personnel describe their many uses of the pump-out system. The paper also reviews the history of pump-out systems, including the logic used to justify installation and the costs associated with these systems.

Risk Assessment on a Large Industrial Ammonia Refrigeration System in Central Copenhagen, Denmark.

A risk assessment was conducted on a large industrial refrigeration system that contains a charge of 70 tons of ammonia and was originally built more than 125 years ago. It is located in the center of a European community with more than one million inhabitants. The environmental authorities asked for a quantitative analysis of the effects of a sudden release of six tons of ammonia. The effect of the release on the system and building are analyzed; the concentrations of ammonia gas and effect on humans at a distance of 200 meters from the main building are presented; and other local environmental effects are explained.

Defrost Options For Carbon Dioxide Systems.

For many refrigeration systems, no defrost is necessary. However, for systems with refrigerant evaporating below 32°F (0°C) where the evaporator is cooling air, an efficient, effective defrost is an essential part of the system. This paper describes the options for carbon dioxide refrigeration systems where some traditional defrost methods cannot be used. Several techniques are presented, each with advantages and disadvantages. The paper also describes practical experiences with some of the less common defrost methods and provides guidance for designers.

Refrigeration for Controlled Atmosphere of Apples in the 21st Century.

Controlled-atmosphere storage of apples involves specialized knowledge in three important areas: the product's storage requirement; how to refrigerate the product; and how to control the atmosphere within the space. Factors to consider in determining the refrigeration load; the type of refrigeration system to use; room design features; control concepts to reduce the refrigeration load throughout the product's storage life; and current methods to control the atmosphere within a sealed storage space are presented.

Ammonia Refrigeration Facilities: Each Rooftop Tells Its Own Story.

Rooftops of ammonia refrigeration plants present unique challenges in many areas, including personnel safety; incident risk mitigation; building code, OSHA PSM, and EPA RMP compliance. The paper describes these challenges and the equipment that often occupies rooftops (including piping and insulation), what to look for during periodic inspections, how to fix some persistent problems, and when to consider replacement.

The annual problem/solution session also is slated, focusing on practical solutions to operating problems. And, a full slate of forums and panel discussions discussing issues such as codes and standards, research and regulatory developments will round out the program.

For more information or to register, call (703) 312-4200 or visit

Sidebar: Quick Facts

IIAR 2006
A Full House in Reno
March 19-21
Hilton Resort and Casino, Reno
Highlights:exhibition featuring products from refrigeration equipment and components suppliers, conference program, problem-solving session, panel discussions, two keynote speakers, plenary session, exhibit reception, banquet and awards dinner, hosted lunch in exhibit hall
More Information:(703) 312-4200 or