Used for very low temperature applications, cascade systems pass heat rejection from the low temperature refrigerant to the high temperature refrigerant through a cascade condenser. At normal condensing temperatures, low temperature refrigerants usually have high coincidental (saturated) pressures (the temperature level required to reject the entire refrigeration system heat to ambient). Typical low temperature refrigerants have a very low specific volume, which means a much smaller compressor can be installed than when refrigerants such as R22 or ammonia are used at very low temperatures.

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