Synthetic refrigerants such as R22 are taking a backseat to ammonia and carbon dioxide, and according to the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration, use of two-stage ammonia-CO2systems have climbed to an all-time high.
To fill the gap in published guidance on the use of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, the group has released the “Carbon Dioxide Industrial Refrigeration Handbook” to help the industry in its transition from synthetic to natural refrigerants. The handbook explains the advantages of CO2, explores its nature, and covers the specification, design, installation and operation of safe CO2systems.
The 10 chapters cover the following:
cascade refrigeration systems.
- System safety.
- Pipe sizing.
- Heat exchangers and vessels.
- Installation, startup and commissioning.