To explain the effect of electronic scale removal, it first is important to understand the major factors that cause scale. While scale can be a complex of many minerals, calcium carbonate is the most prevalent in industrial processes.

Super Saturation. Aqueous solutions can become supersaturated, which means that they contain higher concentrations of dissolved solute than their equilibrium concentration. Such solutions are not stable and easily are triggered into dropping back to saturation level, forcing the dissolved compound to precipitate. Even when a bulk solution is less than fully saturated, scale formation can occur spontaneously due to localized super saturation.

The pH of the solution is directly related to its acid content (typically carbonic acid): The higher the acid content, the lower the pH number will be. The solubility of calcium carbonate is directly affected by the pH of the water. If the pH of the water is decreased, more calcium carbonate solid can be dissolved. Conversely, if the pH of the water rises, it will force calcium carbonate out of solution and scale deposits will form.

Temperature Effect on Scale Formation. Gases in general ― and specifically carbon dioxide ― are less soluble in water at high temperatures. Therefore, as the temperature rises, the dissolved carbon dioxide decreases. This increases the pH of the fluid, reducing the solubility of the calcium carbonate and forcing the mineral to deposit.

 Pressure Effects on Scale Formation. Carbon dioxide and gases in general are more soluble under higher pressure. Therefore, as the pressure drops, carbon dioxide gas will be forced out of solution, lowering the carbonic acid concentration. The rise in pH is associated with a drop in calcium carbonate solubility, leading to the formation of mineral scale deposits.

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