Membrane systems help lower water costs by reducing the need for additional water treatment. This helps companies save energy in utility operations or meeting various purity needs for process applications. The impurity removal system is further defined by application need and the membrane technology being utilized. Microfiltration (MF) and Ultrafiltration (UF) will effectively remove most suspended solids and bacteria, and other large biologicals. Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) will remove dissolved minerals, but they are more susceptible to permanent fouling from larger impurities.